04 juin 2005

Abuser son cerveau

Un petit article amusant. Il y a ci-dessous deux problèmes et la solution se trouve normalement par un raisonnement tout à fait identique mais le problème est présenté une fois sous forme abstraite, une fois sous une forme nettement plus concrète. Vous verrez qu’il est nettement plus simple de résoudre un des deux problèmes. La suite est en anglais, sorry...

Evolutionary psychologists argue that we can understand the workings of the human mind by investigating how it evolved. Much of their research focuses on the past two million years of hominid evolution, during which our ancestors lived in small bands, eating meat they either scavenged or hunted as well as tubers and other plants they gathered. Living for so long in this arrangement, certain ways of thinking may have been favored by natural selection. Evolutionary psychologists believe that a lot of puzzling features of the human mind make sense if we keep our heritage in mind.

The classic example of these puzzles is known as the Wason Selection Task. People tend to do well on this task if it is presented in one way, and terribly if it is presented another way. You can try it out for yourself.

Version 1: (voir partie supérieure de l’image ci-contre)

You are given four cards. Each card has a number on one side and a letter on the other. Indicate only the card or cards you need to turn over to see whether any of these cards violate the following rule: if a card has a D on one side, it has a 3 on the other side.

Version 2: (voir partie inférieure de l’image ci-contre)

Now you're a bouncer at a bar. You must enforce the rule that if a person is drinking beer, then he must be over 21 years old. The four cards below each represent one customer in your bar. One side shows what the person is drinking, and the other side shows the drinker's age. Pick only the cards you definitely need to turn over to see if any of these people are breaking the law and need to be thrown out.

______________________________________________________________

Highlight the area between the Xs for the answers:

X The answer to version one is D and 5. The answer to version two is beer and 17. X

If you took these tests, chances are you bombed on version one and got version two right. Studies consistently show that in tests of the first sort, about 25% of people choose the right answer. But 65% of people get test number two right.

This is actually a very weird result. Both tests involve precisely the same logic: If P, then Q. Yet putting this statement in terms of social rules makes it far easier for people to solve than if it is purely descriptive.

[Source : 3 quarks daily (mai 2005, article “Cheating on the Brain”)]


08:33 Écrit par Genorb dans Science | Lien permanent | Commentaires (0)

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